We study gradient percolation for site percolation on the triangular lattice. This is a percolation model where the percolation probability depends linearly on the location of the site. We prove the results predicted by physicists for this model. More precisely, we describe the fluctuations of the interfaces around their (straight) scaling limits, and the expected and typical lengths of these interfaces. These results build on the recent results for critical percolation on this lattice by Smirnov, Lawler, Schramm and Werner, and on the scaling ideas developed by Kesten.
"Critical exponents of planar gradient percolation." Ann. Probab. 36 (5) 1748 - 1776, September 2008. https://doi.org/10.1214/07-AOP375