As a continuation of a recent paper, dealing with finite Markov chains, this paper proposes and analyzes a recursive algorithm for the approximation of the quasi-stationary distribution of a general Markov chain living on a compact metric space killed in finite time. The idea is to run the process until extinction and then to bring it back to life at a position randomly chosen according to the (possibly weighted) empirical occupation measure of its past positions. General conditions are given ensuring the convergence of this measure to the quasi-stationary distribution of the chain. We then apply this method to the numerical approximation of the quasi-stationary distribution of a diffusion process killed on the boundary of a compact set. Finally, the sharpness of the assumptions is illustrated through the study of the algorithm in a nonirreducible setting.
"Stochastic approximation of quasi-stationary distributions on compact spaces and applications." Ann. Appl. Probab. 28 (4) 2370 - 2416, August 2018. https://doi.org/10.1214/17-AAP1360