We introduce a spatially explicit model for the competition between type a and type b alleles. Each vertex of the d-dimensional integer lattice is occupied by a diploid individual, which is in one of three possible states or genotypes: aa, ab or bb. We are interested in the long-term behavior of the gene frequencies when Mendel’s law of segregation does not hold. This results in a voter type model depending on four parameters; each of these parameters measures the strength of competition between genes during meiosis. We prove that with or without a spatial structure, type a and type b alleles coexist at equilibrium when homozygotes are poor competitors. The inclusion of a spatial structure, however, reduces the parameter region where coexistence occurs.
"Spatially explicit non-Mendelian diploid model." Ann. Appl. Probab. 19 (5) 1880 - 1920, October 2009. https://doi.org/10.1214/09-AAP598