A Heegaard splitting of an open 3–manifold is the partition of the manifold into two non-compact handlebodies which intersect on their common boundary. This paper proves several non-compact analogues of theorems about compact Heegaard splittings. The main result is a classification of Heegaard splittings of those open 3–manifolds obtained by removing boundary components (not all of which are 2–spheres) from a compact 3–manifold. Also studied is the relationship between exhaustions and Heegaard splittings of eventually end-irreducible 3–manifolds. It is shown that Heegaard splittings of end-irreducible 3–manifolds are formed by amalgamating Heegaard splittings of boundary-irreducible compact submanifolds.
"On non-compact Heegaard splittings." Algebr. Geom. Topol. 7 (2) 603 - 672, 2007. https://doi.org/10.2140/agt.2007.7.603