We introduce a new optimal transport distance between nonnegative finite Radon measures with possibly different masses. The construction is based on non-conservative continuity equations and a corresponding modified Benamou-Brenier formula. We establish various topological and geometrical properties of the resulting metric space, derive some formal Riemannian structure, and develop differential calculus following F. Otto's approach. Finally, we apply these ideas to identify a model of animal dispersal proposed by MacCall and Cosner as a gradient flow in our formalism and obtain new long-time convergence results.
"A new optimal transport distance on the space of finite Radon measures." Adv. Differential Equations 21 (11/12) 1117 - 1164, November/December 2016.