In order to estimate the specific intrinsic volumes of a planar Boolean model from a binary image, we consider local digital algorithms based on weighted sums of 2x2 configuration counts. For Boolean models with balls as grains, explicit formulas for the bias of such algorithms are derived, resulting in a set of linear equations that the weights must satisfy in order to minimize the bias in high resolution. These results generalize to larger classes of random sets, as well as to the design-based situation, where a fixed set is observed on a stationary isotropic lattice. Finally, the formulas for the bias obtained for Boolean models are applied to existing algorithms in order to compare their accuracy.
"Local digital estimators of intrinsic volumes for Boolean models and in the design-based setting." Adv. in Appl. Probab. 46 (1) 35 - 58, March 2014. https://doi.org/10.1239/aap/1396360102