Cholera is an infectious intestinal disease which occurs as a result of poor sanitation and lack of basic education in its transmission. It is characterized by profuse vomiting and severe diarrhea when an individual eats food or drinks water contaminated with the Vibrio cholerae. A dynamic mathematical model that explicitly simulates the transmission mechanism of cholera by taking into account the role of control measures and the environment in the transmission of the disease is developed. The model comprises two populations: the human population and bacteria population. The next-generation method is used to compute the basic reproduction number, . Both the disease-free and endemic equilibria are shown to be locally and globally stable for values less than unity and unstable otherwise. Necessary conditions of the optimal control problem were analyzed using Pontryagin’s maximum principle with control measures such as educational campaign and treatment of water bodies used to optimize the objective function. Numerical values of model parameters were estimated using the nonlinear least square method. The model simulations confirm the significant role played by control measures (education and treatment of water bodies) and the bacteria in the environment in the transmission dynamics as well as reducing the spread of cholera.
"The Role of Control Measures and the Environment in the Transmission Dynamics of Cholera." Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2020 1 - 16, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2485979