Real Analysis Exchange Articles (Project Euclid)
http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae
The latest articles from Real Analysis Exchange on Project Euclid, a site for mathematics and statistics resources.en-usCopyright 2010 Cornell University LibraryEuclid-L@cornell.edu (Project Euclid Team)Thu, 05 Aug 2010 15:41 EDTMon, 14 Mar 2011 09:08 EDThttp://projecteuclid.org/collection/euclid/images/logo_linking_100.gifProject Euclid
http://projecteuclid.org/
How to Concentrate Idempotents
http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1272376220
<strong>J. Marshall Ash</strong><p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Anal. Exchange, Volume 35, Number 1, 1--20.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Call a sum of exponentials of the form $f(x)=\exp\left( 2\pi iN_{1}x\right) +\exp\left( 2\pi iN_{2}x\right) +\cdot\cdot\cdot+\exp\left( 2\pi iN_{m}x\right) $, where the $N_{k}$ are distinct integers, an \textit{idempotent}. We have $L^{p}$\textit{ interval concentration} if there is a positive constant $a$, depending only on $p$, such that for each interval $I\subset\left[ 0,1\right] $ there is an idempotent $f$ so that $\int _{I}\left\vert f\left( x\right) \right\vert ^{p}dx\diagup\int_{0} ^{1}\left\vert f\left( x\right) \right\vert ^{p}dx>a$. We will explain how to produce such concentration for each $p>0$. The origin of this question and the history of the development of its solution will be surveyed.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1272376220_Thu, 05 Aug 2010 15:41 EDTThu, 05 Aug 2010 15:41 EDTFrom Scalar McShane Integrability to Pettis Integrabilityhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894904<strong>M. Saadoune</strong>, <strong>R. Sayyad</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 445--466.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> A new concept of McShane-tightness is introduced to pass from scalar (alias weak) McShane integrability to Pettis integrability. It is used also to derive a scalar McShane version of the Vitali theorem.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894904_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTAn Extension of the Hermite-Hadamard Inequality for Convex Symmetrized Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894905<strong>Abdallah El Farissi</strong>, <strong>Maamar Benbachir</strong>, <strong>Meriem Dahmane</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 467--474.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In this work, we extend the Hermite-Hadamard inequality to a new class of functions which do not satisfy the convex property. This result will be applied to both Haber and Fejér inequalities.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894905_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTAdditive Properties of Certain Classes of Pathological Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894906<strong>Alexander B. Kharazishvili</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 475--486.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Some additive properties of the following three families of “pathological” functions are briefly discussed: continuous nowhere differentiable functions, Sierpiński-Zygmund functions, and absolutely nonmeasurable functions.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894906_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTOn Some Modes of Convergence in Spaces with the Weak Banach-Saks Propertyhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894907<strong>Marian Jakszto</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 487--492.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> The paper proves a general theorem that relates some modes of convergence, such as pointwise a.e. convergence, to weak convergence in any space with the weak Banach-Saks property. Some results that follow immediately from the main theorem are given for specific functional spaces.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894907_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTAvoiding Rational Distanceshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894908<strong>Ashutosh Kumar</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 493--498.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We show that for any set of reals \(X\) there is a \(Y \subseteq X\) such \(X\) and \(Y\) have same Lebesgue outer measure and the distance between any two distinct points in \(Y\) is irrational.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894908_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTStrongly Separately Continuous and Separately Quasicontinuous Functions \(f \colon l^{2} \to \mathbb{R}\)http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894909<strong>Tomáš Visnyai</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 38, Number 2, 499--510.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In this paper we give a sufficient condition for the strongly separately continuous functions to be continuous on \(l^{2}\). Further we shall give notions of a separately quasicontinuous function \(f:l^2\to R\) and its properties. At the end we will expecting to determining sets \(M \subset l^{2}\) for the class of separately continuous functions on \(l^{2}\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1403894909_20140627144815Fri, 27 Jun 2014 14:48 EDTMultifractal Analysis of Some Multiple Ergodic Averages for the Systems with Non-constant Lyapunov Exponentshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230136<strong>Lingmin Liao</strong>, <strong>Michał Rams</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 1--14.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We study certain multiple ergodic averages of an iterated functions system generated by two contractions on the unit interval. By using the dynamical coding \(\{0,1\}^{\mathbb{N}}\) of the attractor, we compute the Hausdorff dimension of the set of points with a given frequency of the pattern \(11\) in positions \(k, 2k\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230136_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTOn the Sums of Lower Semicontinuous Strong Światkowski Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230137<strong>Robert Menkyna</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 15--32.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> The purpose of this article is to give a solution to a problem raised by A. Maliszewski in \(\left[5\right]\) by showing that any lower semicontinuous function can be represented as a sum of two lower semicontinuous strong \'{S}wi\k{a}tkowski functions.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230137_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTTubes about Functions and Multifunctionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230138<strong>Gerald Beer</strong>, <strong>Michael J. Hoffman</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 33--44.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We provide a characterization of lower semicontinuity for multifunctions with values in a metric space \(\langle Y,d \rangle\) which, in the special case of single-valued functions, says that a function is continuous if and only if for each \(\varepsilon \gt 0\), the \(\varepsilon\)-tube about its graph is an open set. Applications are given, one of which provides a novel understanding of the Open Mapping Theorem from functional analysis. We also give a related but more complicated characterization of upper semicontinuity for multifunctions with closed values in a metrizable space.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230138_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTDirectional Lower Porosityhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230139<strong>Gareth Speight</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 45--56.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We investigate differences between upper and lower porosity. In finite dimensional Banach spaces every upper porous set is directionally upper porous. We show the situation is very different for lower porous sets; there exists a lower porous set in \(\mathbb{R}^2\) which is not even a countable union of directionally lower porous sets.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230139_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTSmooth Peano Functions for Perfect Subsets of the Real Linehttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230140<strong>Krzysztof Chris Ciesielski</strong>, <strong>Jakub Jasinski</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 57--72.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In this paper we investigate for which closed subsets \(P\) of the real line \(\mathbb{R}\) there exists a continuous map from \(P\) onto \(P^2\) and, if such a function exists, how smooth can it be. We show that there exists an infinitely many times differentiable function \(f\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}^2\) which maps an unbounded perfect set \(P\) onto \(P^2\). At the same time, no continuously differentiable function \(f\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}^2\) can map a compact perfect set onto its square. Finally, we show that a disconnected compact perfect set \(P\) admits a continuous function from \(P\) onto \(P^2\) if, and only if, \(P\) has uncountably many connected components.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230140_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTDimension of Uniformly Random Self-Similar Fractalshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230141<strong>Henna Koivusalo</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 73--90.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> The purpose of this note is to calculate the almost sure Hausdorff dimension of uniformly random self-similar fractals. These random fractals are generated from a finite family of similarities, where the linear parts of the mappings are independent uniformly distributed random variables at each step of iteration. We also prove that the Lebesgue measure of such sets is almost surely positive in some cases.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230141_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTEssential Divergence in Measure of Multiple Orthogonal Fourier Serieshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230142<strong>Rostom Getsadze</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 91--100.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In the present paper we prove the following theorem: \\ Let \(\{\vf _{m,n}(x,y)\}_{m,n=1}^{\infty} \) be an arbitrary uniformly bounded double orthonormal system on \(I^2:=[0,1]^2\) such that for some increasing sequence of positive integers \(\{N_n\}_{n=1}^\infty \) the Lebesgue functions \(L_{N_n,N_n}(x,y)\) of the system are bounded below a. e. by \( \ln^{1+\epsilon} N_n \), where \(\epsilon \) is a positive constant. Then there exists a function \(g \in L(I^2)\) such that the double Fourier series of \(g\) with respect to the system \(\{\vf _{m,n}(x,y)\}_{m,n=1}^{\infty} \) essentially diverges in measure by squares on \(I^2\). The condition is critical in the logarithmic scale in the class of all such systems %\footnote{ 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification : Primary 42B08; Secondary 40B05. % Key words and phrases: %Essential divergence in measure, orthogonal Fourier series, Lebesgue functions}.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230142_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTOuter Measures on the Real Line by Weak Selectionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230143<strong>J. A. Astorga-Moreno</strong>, <strong>S. Garcia-Ferreira</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 101--116.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> A weak selection on an infinite set \(X\) is a function \(f:[X]^2 \to X\) such that \(f(F) \in F\) for each \(F \in [X]^2 := \{ E \subseteq X : |E| = 2 \}\). If \(f: [X]^2 \to X\) is a weak selection and \(x, y \in \mathbb{R}\), then we say that \(x \lt_f y\) if \(f(\{x, y\}) = x\) and \(x \leq_f y\) if either \(x = y\) or \(x \lt_f y\). Given a weak selection \(f\) on \(X\) and \(x, y \in X\), we let \((x,y]_f = \{z \in X : x \lt_f z \le_f y \}\). If \(f: [\mathbb{R}]^2 \to \mathbb{R}\) is a weak selection and \(A \subseteq \mathbb{R}\), then we define \[ \lambda^{*}_{f}(A):=\inf\Big\{\sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}} |b_{n} - a_{n}| \, : \, A \subseteq \bigcup_{n \in \mathbb{N}}(a_{n},b_{n}]_{f} \Big\} \] if there exists a countable cover by semi open \(f\)-intervals of \(A,\) and if there is not such a cover, then we say that \(\lambda^{*}_{f}(A)=+\infty\). This function \(\lambda^{*}_{f}\:mathcal{P}(\mathbb{R}) \longrightarrow [0,+\infty]\) is an outer measure on the real line \(\mathbb{R}\) which generalizes the Lebesgue outer measure. In this paper, we show several interesting properties of these kind of outer measures.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230143_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTSets of Discontinuities for Functions Continuous on Flatshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230144<strong>Krzysztof Chris Ciesielski</strong>, <strong>Timothy Glatzer</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 117--138.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> For families \(\mathcal{F}\) of flats (i.e., affine subspaces) of \(\mathbb{R}^n\), we investigate the classes of \(\mathcal{F}\)-continuous functions \(f\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}\), whose restrictions \(f\restriction F\) are continuous for every \(F\in\F\). If \(\mathcal{F}_k\) is the class of all \(k\)-dimensional flats, then \(\mathcal{F}_1\)-continuity is known as linear continuity; if \(\mathcal{F}_k^+\) stands for all \(F\in\mathcal{F}_k\) parallel to vector subspaces spanned by coordinate vectors, then \(\mathcal{F}_1^+\)-continuous maps are the separately continuous functions, that is, those which are continuous in each variable separately. For the classes \(\mathcal{F}=\mathcal{F}_k^+\), we give a full characterization of the collections \(\mathcal{D}\mathcal{F}(\mathcal{F})\) of the sets of points of discontinuity of \(\F\)-continuous functions. We provide the structural results on the families \(\mathcal{D}(\mathcal{F}_k)\) and give a full characterization of the collections \(\mathcal{D}(\mathcal{F}_k)\) in the case when \(k\geq n/2\). In particular, our characterization of the class \(\mathcal{D}(\mathcal{F}_1)\) for \(\mathbb{R}^2\) solves a 60 year old problem of Kronrod.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230144_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTSome New Types of Filter Limit Theorems for Topological Group-Valued Measureshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230145<strong>Antonio Boccuto</strong>, <strong>Xenofon Dimitriou</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 139--174.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Some new types of limit theorems for topological group-valued measures are proved in the context of filter convergence for suitable classes of filters. We investigate \((s)\)-boundedness, \(\sigma\)-additivity and regularity properties of topological group-valued measures. We consider also Schur-type theorems, using the sliding hump technique, and prove some convergence theorems in the particular case of positive measures. We deal with the notion of uniform filter exhaustiveness, by means of which we prove some theorems on existence of the limit measure, some other kinds of limit theorems and their equivalence, using known results on existence of countably additive restrictions of strongly bounded measures. Furthermore we pose some open problems.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230145_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTInvestigations of Strong Right Upper Porosity at a Pointhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230146<strong>Viktoriia V. Bilet</strong>, <strong>Oleksiy A. Dovgoshey</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 175--206.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We define and study, for subsets of \([0, \infty),\) several types of strong right upper porosity at the point 0. Some characterizations of these types of porosity are obtained, including a characterization in terms of a universal property and a characterization in terms of a structural property.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230146_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTThe Implicit and Inverse Function Theorems: Easy Proofshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230147<strong>Oswaldo de Oliveira</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 207--218.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> This article presents simple and easy proofs of the Implicit Function Theorem and the Inverse Function Theorem, in this order, both of them on a finite-dimensional Euclidean space, that employ only the Intermediate-Value Theorem and the Mean-Value Theorem. These proofs avoid compactness arguments, the contraction principle, and fixed-point theorems.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230147_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTA Functional Analytic Proof of the Lebesgue-Darst Decomposition Theoremhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230148<strong>Zsigmond Tarcsay</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 219--226.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> The aim of this paper is to give a functional analytic proof of the Lebesgue--Darst decomposition theorem \cite{Darst}. We show that the decomposition of a nonnegative valued additive set function into absolutely continuous and singular parts with respect to another derives from the Riesz orthogonal decomposition theorem employed in a corresponding Hilbert space.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230148_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTDescriptive Characterizations of Pettis and Strongly McShane Integralshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230149<strong>Sokol B. Kaliaj</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 227--238.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Using different types of absolute continuity, we characterize additive interval functions which are the primitives of Pettis or strongly McShane integrable functions.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230149_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDTA Generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculushttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230150<strong>Keqin Liu</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 1, 239--260.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> After introducing the concepts of \(\varphi\)-derivatives and \(\varphi\)-integrals inside the dual real number algebra, we prove a new generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1404230150_20140701115537Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:55 EDT\(72 + 42\): Characterizations of the Completeness and Archimedean Properties of Ordered Fieldshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669996<strong>Michael Deveau</strong>, <strong>Holger Teismann</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 261--304.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
This paper provides a list of statements of single-variable Real Analysis, including well-known theorems, that are equivalent to the completeness or Archimedean properties of totally ordered fields. There are 72 characterizations of completeness and 42 characterizations of the Archimedean property, among them many that appear to be new in the sense that they do not seem to have previously been mentioned in this context. An attempt is made to be as comprehensive as possible and to give a complete account of the current state of knowledge of the matter. Proofs are provided whenever they are not readily available in the literature.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669996_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTOscillation of Hölder Continuous Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669997<strong>J. G. Llorente</strong>, <strong>A. Nicolau</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 305--322.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Local oscillation of a function satisfying a Hölder condition is considered, and it is proved that its growth is governed by a version of the Law of the Iterated Logarithm.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669997_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTThe Class of Purely Unrectifiable Sets in \(\ell_2\) is \(\Pii\)-completehttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669998<strong>Vadim Kulikov</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 323--334.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
The space \(F(\ell_2)\) of all closed subsets of \(\ell_2\) is a Polish space. We show that the subset \(P\subset F(\ell_2)\) consisting of the purely \(1\)-unrectifiable sets is \(\Pii\)-complete.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669998_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTQuasi-Continuity of Horizontally Quasi-Continuous Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669999<strong>Alireza Kamel Mirmostafaee</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 335--344.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Let \(X\) be a Baire space, \(Y\) a topological space, \(Z\) a regular space and \(f:X \times Y \to Z\) be a horizontally quasi-continuous function. We will show that if \(Y\) is first countable and \(f\) is quasi-continuous with respect to the first variable, then every horizontally quasi-continuous function \(f:X \times Y \to Z\) is jointly quasi-continuous. This will extend Martin's Theorem of quasi-continuity of separately quasi-continuous functions for non-metrizable range. Moreover, we will prove quasi-continuity of \(f\) for the case \(Y\) is not necessarily first countable.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435669999_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTWeighted a Priori Estimates for the Solution of the Dirichlet Problem in Polygonal Domains in \(\mathbb{R}^2\)http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670000<strong>Marcela Sanmartino</strong>, <strong>Marisa Toschi</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 345--362.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Let \(\Omega\) be a polygonal domain in \(\mathbb{R}^2\) and let \(U\) be a weak solution of \( -\Delta u=f\) in \( \Omega\) with Dirichlet boundary condition, where \(f\in L^p_\omega(\Omega)\) and \(\omega\) is a weight in \(A_p(\mathbb{R}^2)\), \(1<p<\infty\). We give some estimates of the Green function associated to this problem involving some functions of the distance to the vertices and the angles of \(\Omega\). As a consequence, we can prove an a priori estimate for the solution \(u\) on the weighted Sobolev spaces \(W^{2,p}_\omega(\Omega)\), \(1<p<\infty\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670000_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTRemarks on a Sum involving Binomial Coefficientshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670001<strong>Horst Alzer</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 363--366.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Let \[ S_p(a,b;t)=\frac{1}{b}\sum_{k=0}^{p} \frac{{p\choose k}}{ {ak+b \choose b} } t^k, \] with \(p\in \mathbf{N}\), \(0<a\in\mathbf{R}\), \(0<b\in\mathbf{R}\), \( t\in\mathbf{R}\). We prove that \( S_p(a,b;t)\) is completely monotonic on \((0,\infty)\) as a function of \(a\) (if \(t>0\)) and as a function of \(b\) (if \(t\geq -1)\). This extends a result of Sofo, who proved that \(a\mapsto S_p(a,b;t)\) is strictly decreasing, convex, and log-convex on \([1,\infty)\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670001_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTExact Hausdorff Measures of Cantor Setshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670002<strong>Malin Palö</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 367--384.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Cantor sets in \(\mathbb{R}\) are common examples of sets for which Hausdorff measures can be positive and finite. However, there exist Cantor sets for which no Hausdorff measure is supported and finite. The purpose of this paper is to try to resolve this problem by studying an extension of the Hausdorff measures \( \mu_h\) on \(\mathbb{R}\), allowing gauge functions to depend on the midpoint of the covering intervals instead of only on the diameter. As a main result, a theorem about the Hausdorff measure of any regular enough Cantor set, with respect to a chosen gauge function, is obtained.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670002_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTWeighting inequalities for one-sided vector-valued maximal operators with respect to a functionhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670003<strong>Álvaro Corvalán</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 385--402.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
The purpose of this paper is to find necessary and sufficient conditions on the weight \(w\) for the weak type \(\left( p,p\right) \) with \(1\leq p<+\infty \) and for the strong type \(\left( p,p\right)\) with \(1<p<+\infty \) respect to a measure \(wdx\) of the vector-valued one-sided maximal operator \(\left(M_{g}^{+}\right) _{r}\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670003_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTRiemann and Riemann-type Integration in Banach Spaceshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670004<strong>Sk. Jaker Ali</strong>, <strong>Pratikshan Mondal</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 403--440.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Riemann, Riemann-Dunford, Riemann-Pettis and Darboux integrable functions with values in a Banach space and Riemann-Gelfand integrable functions with values in the dual of a Banach space are studied in the light of the work of Graves, Alexiewicz and Orlicz, and Gordon. Various properties of these types of integrals and the interrelation between them are established. The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus for these types of integrals is also studied.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670004_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTA Simpler Proof for the \(\epsilon\)-\(\delta\) Characterization of Baire Class One Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670005<strong>Jonald P. Fenecios</strong>, <strong>Emmanuel A. Cabral</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 441--446.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We offer a new and simpler proof of a recent \(\epsilon\)-\(\delta\) characterization of Baire class one functions using a theorem by Henri Lebesgue. The proof is more elementary in the sense that it does not use the Baire Category Theorem. Furthermore, the proof requires only that the domain and range be separable metric spaces instead of Polish spaces.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670005_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTHake's Theorem on Metric Measure Spaceshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670006<strong>Surinder Pal Singh</strong>, <strong>Inder K. Rana</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 447--458.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
In this paper, we extend the Hake's theorem over metric measure spaces. We provide its measure theoretic versions in terms of the Henstock variational measure \(V_F\).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670006_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTOn Partitions of the Real Line into Continuum Many Thick Subsetshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670007<strong>A. B. Kharazishvili</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 459--468.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
Three classical constructions of Lebesgue nonmeasurable sets on the real line \({\bf R}\) are envisaged from the point of view of the thickness of those sets. It is also shown, within \({\bf ZF}~\&~{\bf DC}\) theory, that the existence of a Lebesgue nonmeasurable subset of \({\bf R}\) implies the existence of a partition of \({\bf R}\) into continuum many thick sets.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670007_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTStrong Derivatives and Integralshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670008<strong>Brian S. Thomson</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 39, Number 2, 469--488.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
The strong derivative is not, without some caution, a useful tool in the study of McShane's (i.e., Lebesgue's) integral. Even so, the underlying structure of that process of derivation is closely connected to the formulation of the Riemann sums definition that McShane gave for his integral. This article discusses some of the features and traps for the study of those connections.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435670008_20150630091318Tue, 30 Jun 2015 09:13 EDTThe Denjoy-Young-Saks Theorem in Higher Dimensions: A Surveyhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759193<strong>Ákos K. Matszangosz</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 1--36.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
The classical theorem of Denjoy, Young and Saks gives a relation between Dini derivatives of a real variable function that holds almost everywhere. We present what is known in the one and two variable case with an emphasis on the latter. Relations that hold a.e. in both the measure and category sense are considered. Classical and approximate derivatives are both discussed.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759193_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTEquilateral Weights on the Unit Ball of ℝ
nhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759194<strong>Emmanuel Chetcuti</strong>, <strong>Joseph Muscat</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 37--52.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
An equilateral set (or regular simplex) in a metric space \(X\) is a sets \(A\) such that the distance between any pair of distinct members of \(A\) is a constant. An equilateral set is standard if the distance between distinct members is equal to \(1\). Motivated by the notion of frame functions, as introduced and characterized by Gleason in [6], we define an equilateral weight on a metric space \(X\) to be a function \(f:X\longrightarrow \mathbb{R}\) such that \(\sum_{i\in I}f(x_i)=W\) for every maximal standard equilateral set \(\{x_i:i\in I\}\) in \(X\), where \(W\in\mathbb{R}\) is the weight of \(f\). In this paper, we characterize the equilateral weights associated with the unit ball \(B^n\) of \(\mathbb{R}^n\) as follows: For \(n\ge 2\), every equilateral weight on \(B^n\) is constant.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759194_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTTangent Measures of Typical Measureshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759195<strong>Tuomas Sahlsten</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 53--80.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We prove that for a typical Radon measure \(\mu\) in \(\mathbb{R}^d\), every non-zero Radon measure is a tangent measure of \(\mu\) at \(\mu\) almost every point. This was already shown by T. O’Neil in his Ph.D. thesis from 1994, but we provide a different self-contained proof for this fact. Moreover, we show that this result is sharp: for any non-zero measure we construct a point in its support where the set of tangent measures does not contain all non-zero measures. We also study a concept similar to tangent measures on trees, micromeasures, and show an analogous typical property for them.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759195_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTThe Equality of Mixed Partial Derivativeshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759196<strong>Ettore Minguzzi</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 81--98.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We review and develop two little known results on the equality of mixed partial derivatives, which can be considered the best results so far available in their respective domains. The former, due to Mikusiński and his school, deals with equality at a given point, while the latter, due to Tolstov, concerns equality almost everywhere. Applications to differential geometry and General Relativity are commented.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759196_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTBowen’s Formula for Shift-Generated Finite Conformal Constructionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759197<strong>Andrei E. Ghenciu</strong>, <strong>Mario Roy</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 99--112.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We study shift-generated finite conformal constructions; i.e. conformal constructions generated by a general shift (shift of finite type, sofic shift and non-sofic shift alike) over a finite alphabet. These constructions are not restricted to shifts of finite type or sofic shifts as in the classical limit set constructions. In particular, we prove that the limit sets of such constructions satisfy Bowen’s formula, which gives the Hausdorff dimension of the limit set as the zero of the topological pressure. We look at several examples, including a one-dimensional construction generated by the so-called context-free shift.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759197_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTHausdorff and Packing Measures of Balanced Cantor Setshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759198<strong>Kathryn Hare</strong>, <strong>Ka-Shing Ng</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 113--128.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We estimate the \(h\)-Hausdorff and \(h\)-packing measures of balanced Cantor sets, and characterize the corresponding dimension partitions. This generalizes results known for Cantor sets associated with positive decreasing summable sequences and central Cantor sets.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759198_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTOn Borel Hull Operationshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759199<strong>Tomasz Filipczak</strong>, <strong>Andrzej Rosłanowski</strong>, <strong>Saharon Shelah</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 129--140.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We show that some set-theoretic assumptions (for example Martin’s Axiom) imply that there is no translation invariant Borel hull operation on the family of Lebesgue null sets and on the family of meager sets (in \(\mathbb{R}^{n}\)). We also prove that if the meager ideal admits a monotone Borel hull operation, then there is also a monotone Borel hull operation on the \(\sigma\)-algebra of sets with the property of Baire.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759199_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTGeneralized Kiesswetter’s Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759200<strong>Delong Li</strong>, <strong>Jie Miao</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 141--156.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
In 1966, Kiesswetter found an interesting example of continuous everywhere but differentiable nowhere functions using base-4 expansion of real numbers. In this paper we show how Kiesswetter’s function can be extended to general cases. We also provide an equivalent form for such functions via a recurrence relation.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759200_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTAn Integral on a Complete Metric Measure Spacehttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759201<strong>Donatella Bongiorno</strong>, <strong>Giuseppa Corrao</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 157--178.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
We study a Henstock-Kurzweil type integral defined on a complete metric measure space \(X\) endowed with a Radon measure \(\mu\) and with a family of “cells” \(\mathcal{F}\) that satisfies the Vitali covering theorem with respect to \(\mu\). This integral encloses, in particular, the classical Henstock-Kurzweil integral on the real line, the dyadic Henstock-Kurzweil integral, the Mawhin’s integral [19], and the \(s\)-HK integral [4]. The main result of this paper is the extension of the usual descriptive characterizations of the Henstock-Kurzweil integral on the real line, in terms of \(ACG^*\) functions (Main Theorem 1) and in terms of
variational measures (Main Theorem 2).
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759201_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTA Sufficient Condition for a Bounded Set of Positive Lebesgue Measure in ℝ
2 or ℝ
3 to Contain its Centroidhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759202<strong>Eric A. Hintikka</strong>, <strong>Steven G. Krantz</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 179--192.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for a domain in either two- or three-dimensional Euclidean space to contain its centroid. We show that the condition is sharp. The condition is not, however, necessary.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759202_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTExtreme Results on Certain Generalized Riemann Derivativeshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759203<strong>John C. Georgiou</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 193--208.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
In this paper the following question is investigated. Given a natural number \(r\) and numbers \(\alpha_j,\beta_j\) for \(j=0,1,\dots,r\) satisfying \( \alpha_0 <\alpha_1 < \dots <lt \alpha_r \) and \begin{equation*} \sum_{j=0}^{r} \beta_j \alpha_j^k= \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if \(k=0,1,\dots,r-1\)}\\ r!& \text{if \(k=r\) } \end{cases} \end{equation*} is there a \( 2\pi\)-periodic, \( r-1\) times continuously differentiable function \( f\) such that \begin{equation*} \limsup_{h \nearrow 0} h^{-r} \Big(\sum_{j=0}^{r} \beta_j f(x+ \alpha_j h)\Big) = \limsup_{h \searrow 0} h^{-r} \Big(\sum_{j=0}^{r} \beta_j f(x+ \alpha_j h)\Big) = \infty, \end{equation*} \begin{equation*} \liminf_{h \nearrow 0} h^{-r} \Big(\sum_{j=0}^{r} \beta_j f(x+ \alpha_j h)\Big) = \liminf_{h \searrow 0} h^{-r} \Big(\sum_{j=0}^{r} \beta_j f(x+ \alpha_j h)\Big) = - \infty \end{equation*} for every \( x \in \mathbb{R} \)?
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759203_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTAbsolute Continuity in Partial Differential Equationshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759204<strong>Amin Farjudian</strong>, <strong>Behrouz Emamizadeh</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 209--218.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
In this note, we study a function which frequently appears in partial differential equations. We prove that this function is absolutely continuous; hence it can be written as a definite integral. As a result, we obtain some estimates regarding solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi systems.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759204_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTBasic Introduction To Exponential and Logarithmic Functionshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759205<strong>Adel B. Badi</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 219--226.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
This article discusses the definitions and properties of exponential and logarithmic functions. The treatment is based on the basic properties of real numbers, sequences and continuous functions. This treatment avoids the use of definite integrals.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759205_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTAddendum to: Some new Types of Filter Limit Theorems for Topological group-valued Measureshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759206<strong>Antonio Boccuto</strong>, <strong>Xenofon Dimitriou</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 40, Number 1, 227--232.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/>
The purpose of this note is to point out some corrections to the paper: A. Boccuto and X. Dimitriou, “Some new types of filter limit theorems for topological group-valued measures,” \textit{Real Anal. Exchange} \textbf{39} (1) (2014), 139-174.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1435759206_20150701100000Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:00 EDTOn Interval Based Generalizations of Absolute Continuity for Functions on \(\mathbb{R}^{n}\)http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580012<strong>Michael Dymond</strong>, <strong>Beata Randrianantoanina</strong>, <strong>Huaqiang Xu</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 49--78.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We study notions of absolute continuity for functions defined on $\mathbb{R}^n$ similar to the notion of $\alpha$-absolute continuity in the sense of Bongiorno. We confirm a conjecture of Malý that 1-absolutely continuous functions do not need to be differentiable a.e., and we show several other pathological examples of functions in this class. We establish some containment relations of the class $1\po AC_{\rm WDN}$ which consits of all functions in $1\po AC$ which are in the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}_{loc}$, are differentiable a.e. and satisfy the Luzin (N) property, with previously studied classes of absolutely continuous functions.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580012_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDTA Class of Random Cantor Setshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580013<strong>Changhao Chen</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 79--120.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In this paper we study a class of random Cantor sets. We determine their almost sure Hausdorff, packing, box, and Assouad dimensions. From a topological point of view, we also compute their typical dimensions in the sense of Baire category. For the natural random measures on these random Cantor sets, we consider their almost sure lower and upper local dimensions. In the end we study the hitting probabilities of a special subclass of these random Cantor sets.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580013_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDTVariance Jensen Type Inequalities for General Lebesgue Integral with Applicationshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580014<strong>Silvestru S. Dragomir</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 121--148.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Some inequalities similar to Jensen inequalities for general Lebesgue integral are obtained. Applications for functions of selfadjoint operators and functions of unitary operators on complex Hilbert spaces are provided as well.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580014_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDTQuantization for Uniform Distributions on Equilateral Triangleshttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580015<strong>Carl P. Dettmann</strong>, <strong>Mrinal Kanti Roychowdhury</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 149--166.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> We approximate the uniform measure on an equilateral triangle by a measure supported on $n$ points. We find the optimal sets of points ($n$-means) and corresponding approximation (quantization) error for $n\leq4$, give numerical optimization results for $n\leq 21$, and a bound on the quantization error for $n\to\infty$. The equilateral triangle has particularly efficient quantizations due to its connection with the triangular lattice. Our methods can be applied to the uniform distributions on general sets with piecewise smooth boundaries.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580015_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDTThe $\ell_1$-Dichotomy Theorem with Respect to a Coidealhttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580016<strong>Vassiliki Farmaki</strong>, <strong>Andreas Mitropoulos</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 167--184.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> In this paper we introduce, for any coideal basis $\B$ on the set $\nat$ of natural numbers, the notions of a $\B$-sequence, a $\B$-subsequence of a $\B$-sequence, and a $\B$-convergent sequence in a metric space. The usual notions of a sequence, subsequence, and convergent sequence obtain for the coideal $\B$ of all the infinite subsets of $\nat$. We first prove a Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem for $\B$-sequences: if $\B$ is a Ramsey coideal basis on $\nat$, then every bounded $\B$-sequence of real numbers has a $\B$-convergent $\B$-subsequence; and next, with the help of this extended Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, we establish an extension of the fundamental Rosenthal's $\ell_1$-dichotomy theorem: if $\B $ is a semiselective coideal basis on $\nat$, then every bounded $\B$-sequence of real valued functions $(f_n)_{n\in A}$ has a $\B$-subsequence $(f_n)_{n\in B}$, which is either $\B$-convergent or equivalent to the unit vector basis of $\ell_1(B)$.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580016_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDTDirectional Differentiability in the Euclidean Planehttp://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580017<strong>J. Marshall Ash</strong>, <strong>Stefan Catoiu</strong>. <p><strong>Source: </strong>Real Analysis Exchange, Volume 42, Number 1, 185--192.</p><p><strong>Abstract:</strong><br/> Smoothness conditions on a function $f\:mathbb{R}^{2}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ that are weaker than being differentiable or Lipschitz at a point are defined and studied.
</p>projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1490580017_20170326220033Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:00 EDT