Statistical Science

To Explain or to Predict?

Galit Shmueli

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Statistical modeling is a powerful tool for developing and testing theories by way of causal explanation, prediction, and description. In many disciplines there is near-exclusive use of statistical modeling for causal explanation and the assumption that models with high explanatory power are inherently of high predictive power. Conflation between explanation and prediction is common, yet the distinction must be understood for progressing scientific knowledge. While this distinction has been recognized in the philosophy of science, the statistical literature lacks a thorough discussion of the many differences that arise in the process of modeling for an explanatory versus a predictive goal. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between explanatory and predictive modeling, to discuss its sources, and to reveal the practical implications of the distinction to each step in the modeling process.

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Statist. Sci., Volume 25, Number 3 (2010), 289-310.

First available in Project Euclid: 4 January 2011

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Explanatory modeling causality predictive modeling predictive power statistical strategy data mining scientific research


Shmueli, Galit. To Explain or to Predict?. Statist. Sci. 25 (2010), no. 3, 289--310. doi:10.1214/10-STS330.

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