## Nagoya Mathematical Journal

- Nagoya Math. J.
- Volume 166 (2002), 29-37.

### Lower bounds for fundamental units of real quadratic fields

Koshi Tomita and Kouji Yamamuro

#### Abstract

Let $d$ be a square-free positive integer and $l(d)$ be the period length of the simple continued fraction expansion of $\omega_d$, where $\omega_d $ is integral basis of $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{d}]$. Let $\varepsilon_d = (t_d+u_d\sqrt{d})/2$ $(>1)$ be the fundamental unit of the real quadratic field $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$. In this paper new lower bounds for $\varepsilon_d$, $t_d$, and $u_d$ are described in terms of $l(d)$. The lower bounds of $\varepsilon_d$ are sharper than the known bounds and those of $t_d$ and $u_d$ have been yet unknown. In order to show the strength of the method of the proof, some interesting examples of $d$ are given for which $\varepsilon_d$ and Yokoi's $d$-invariants are determined explicitly in relation to continued fractions of the form $[a_0, \overline{1, \dots ,1, a_{l(d)}}\mkern1.5mu]$.

#### Article information

**Source**

Nagoya Math. J., Volume 166 (2002), 29-37.

**Dates**

First available in Project Euclid: 27 April 2005

**Permanent link to this document**

https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.nmj/1114631731

**Mathematical Reviews number (MathSciNet)**

MR1908571

**Zentralblatt MATH identifier**

1035.11055

**Subjects**

Primary: 11R27: Units and factorization

Secondary: 11R11: Quadratic extensions

#### Citation

Tomita, Koshi; Yamamuro, Kouji. Lower bounds for fundamental units of real quadratic fields. Nagoya Math. J. 166 (2002), 29--37. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.nmj/1114631731