## Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic

- Notre Dame J. Formal Logic
- Volume 57, Number 3 (2016), 375-388.

### Finiteness Classes and Small Violations of Choice

Horst Herrlich, Paul Howard, and Eleftherios Tachtsis

#### Abstract

We study properties of certain subclasses of the Dedekind finite sets (addressed as finiteness classes) in set theory without the axiom of choice (AC) with respect to the comparability of their elements and to the boundedness of such classes, and we answer related open problems from Herrlich’s “The Finite and the Infinite.” The main results are as follows:

1. It is relatively consistent with ZF that the class of all finite sets is not the only finiteness class such that any two of its elements are comparable.

2. The principle “Small Violations of Choice” (SVC)—introduced by A. Blass—implies that the class of all Dedekind finite sets is bounded above.

3. “The class of all Dedekind finite sets is bounded above” is true in every permutation model of ZFA in which the class of atoms is a set, and in every symmetric model of ZF.

4. There exists a model of ZFA set theory in which the class of all atoms is a proper class and in which the class of all infinite Dedekind finite sets is not bounded above.

5. There exists a model of ZF in which the class of all infinite Dedekind finite sets is not bounded above.

#### Article information

**Source**

Notre Dame J. Formal Logic, Volume 57, Number 3 (2016), 375-388.

**Dates**

Received: 21 January 2013

Accepted: 7 November 2013

First available in Project Euclid: 26 February 2016

**Permanent link to this document**

https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ndjfl/1456499492

**Digital Object Identifier**

doi:10.1215/00294527-3490101

**Mathematical Reviews number (MathSciNet)**

MR3521487

**Zentralblatt MATH identifier**

06621296

**Subjects**

Primary: 03E25: Axiom of choice and related propositions

Secondary: 03E35: Consistency and independence results

**Keywords**

axiom of choice small violations of choice notions of finite finiteness classes proper classes ZFA-model ZF-model

#### Citation

Herrlich, Horst; Howard, Paul; Tachtsis, Eleftherios. Finiteness Classes and Small Violations of Choice. Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 57 (2016), no. 3, 375--388. doi:10.1215/00294527-3490101. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ndjfl/1456499492