## Missouri Journal of Mathematical Sciences

- Missouri J. Math. Sci.
- Volume 14, Issue 2 (2002), 123-135.

### Relative Algebraic Structures

#### Abstract

The concept and some of the algebraic properties of the rejective and non-absorptive sets of a subgroup, subring, and subgroup of a module over a ring are investigated. It is shown that the set theoretic complement of a non-absorptive set in the above mentioned algebraic substructures is a normal subgroup (respectively, (left, right) ideal, submodule) of its underlying algebraic structure. The invariant property of the non-absorptive sets under the operation of inversion in the related underlying algebraic structure is proved. $G \setminus R(H)$, the set theoretic complement of the rejective set of a subgroup $H$ in a group $G$, is closed under the product in $G$ and whenever $\vert G \vert$ the order of the group $G$ is finite, $\vert R(H) \vert = (k-s) \vert H \vert$ where each of the $k$ and $s$ is the index of $H$ in $G$ and in $G \setminus R(H)$, respectively. For the case of rings and modules, the set theoretic complement of the rejective set of a substructure in the underlying ring is a subring of the underlying ring. For any subring $S$ of a ring $R$, examples and some of the properties of $S$-relative (left) ideals and $S$-relative submodules are given and also it is shown that $S$ is contained in the set theoretic complement of the rejective set of that $S$-relative (left) ideal (respectively, submodule). Finally, some of the properties of the relative homomorphisms of $R$-modules, and the rejective (respectively, non-absorptive) sets of the group homomorphisms of $R$-modules are investigated.

#### Article information

**Source**

Missouri J. Math. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 2 (2002), 123-135.

**Dates**

First available in Project Euclid: 4 October 2019

**Permanent link to this document**

https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.mjms/1570154517

**Digital Object Identifier**

doi:10.35834/2002/1402123

**Mathematical Reviews number (MathSciNet)**

MR1907850

**Zentralblatt MATH identifier**

1067.20500

#### Citation

Rahimi, Amir M. Relative Algebraic Structures. Missouri J. Math. Sci. 14 (2002), no. 2, 123--135. doi:10.35834/2002/1402123. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.mjms/1570154517