Journal of Symbolic Logic

A simple maximality principle

Joel David Hamkins

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In this paper, following an idea of Christophe Chalons, I propose a new kind of forcing axiom, the Maximality Principle, which asserts that any sentence φ holding in some forcing extension $V\P$ and all subsequent extensions V\P*\Qdot holds already in V. It follows, in fact, that such sentences must also hold in all forcing extensions of V. In modal terms, therefore, the Maximality Principle is expressed by the scheme $(\possible\necessaryφ)\implies\necessaryφ$, and is equivalent to the modal theory S5. In this article, I prove that the Maximality Principle is relatively consistent with \ZFC. A boldface version of the Maximality Principle, obtained by allowing real parameters to appear in φ, is equiconsistent with the scheme asserting that $Vδ\elesub V$ for an inaccessible cardinal δ, which in turn is equiconsistent with the scheme asserting that $\ORD$ is Mahlo. The strongest principle along these lines is $\necessary\MPtilde$, which asserts that $\MPtilde$ holds in V and all forcing extensions. From this, it follows that 0# exists, that x# exists for every set x, that projective truth is invariant by forcing, that Woodin cardinals are consistent and much more. Many open questions remain.

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J. Symbolic Logic, Volume 68, Issue 2 (2003), 527- 550.

First available in Project Euclid: 11 May 2003

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Hamkins, Joel David. A simple maximality principle. J. Symbolic Logic 68 (2003), no. 2, 527-- 550. doi:10.2178/jsl/1052669062.

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