## International Statistical Review

- Internat. Statist. Rev.
- Volume 74, Number 3 (2006), 305-334.

### Causality and Causal Models: A Conceptual Perspective

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#### Abstract

This paper aims at displaying a synthetic view of the historical development and the current research concerning causal relationships, starting from the Aristotelian doctrine of causes, following with the main philosophical streams until the middle of the twentieth century, and commenting on the present intensive research work in the statistical domain. The philosophical survey dwells upon various concepts of cause, and some attempts towards picking out spurious causes. Concerning statistical modelling, factorial models and directed acyclic graphs are examined and compared. Special attention is devoted to randomization and pseudo-randomization (for observational studies) in view of avoiding the effect of possible confounders. An outline of the most common problems and pitfalls, encountered in modelling empirical data, closes the paper, with a warning to be very cautious in modelling and inferring conditional independence between variables.

This paper is based on the President's Lecture, given at the Biennial Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society, Bari, June 2004.

#### Article information

**Source**

Internat. Statist. Rev., Volume 74, Number 3 (2006), 305-334.

**Dates**

First available in Project Euclid: 4 December 2006

**Permanent link to this document**

https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.isr/1165245392

**Keywords**

Causality Causal models Directed acyclic graph Confounder Counterfactual

#### Citation

Frosini, Benito V. Causality and Causal Models: A Conceptual Perspective. Internat. Statist. Rev. 74 (2006), no. 3, 305--334. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.isr/1165245392

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