Duke Mathematical Journal

A cup product in the Galois cohomology of number fields

William G. McCallum and Romyar T. Sharifi

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Let K be a number field containing the group μn of nth roots of unity, and let S be a set of primes of K including all those dividing n and all real archimedean places. We consider the cup product on the first Galois cohomology group of the maximal S-ramified extension of K with coefficients in μn, which yields a pairing on a subgroup of $K\sp \mathsf{x}$ containing the S-units. In this general situation, we determine a formula for the cup product of two elements that pair trivially at all local places.

Our primary focus is the case in which $K=\mathbb {Q}(\mu\sb p)$ for n=p, an odd prime, and S consists of the unique prime above p in K. We describe a formula for this cup product in the case that one element is a pth root of unity. We explain a conjectural calculation of the restriction of the cup product to p-units for all p≤10,000$ and conjecture its surjectivity for all p satisfying Vandiver's conjecture. We prove this for the smallest irregular prime p=37 via a computation related to the Galois module structure of p-units in the unramified extension of K of degree p.

We describe a number of applications: to a product map in K-theory, to the structure of S-class groups in Kummer extensions of S, to relations in the Galois group of the maximal pro-p extension of $\mathbb {Q}(mu\sb p)$ unramified outside p, to relations in the graded ℤp-Lie algebra associated to the representation of the absolute Galois group of ȑA in the outer automorphism group of the pro-p fundamental group of $\mathbf {P}\sp 1(\overline \mathbb {Q})-\{0,1,\infty\}$, and to Greenberg's pseudonullity conjecture.

Article information

Duke Math. J. Volume 120, Number 2 (2003), 269-310.

First available in Project Euclid: 16 April 2004

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Digital Object Identifier

Mathematical Reviews number (MathSciNet)

Zentralblatt MATH identifier

Primary: 11R34: Galois cohomology [See also 12Gxx, 19A31]
Secondary: 11R23: Iwasawa theory 11R29: Class numbers, class groups, discriminants 11R70: $K$-theory of global fields [See also 19Fxx] 20F34: Fundamental groups and their automorphisms [See also 57M05, 57Sxx]


McCallum, William G.; Sharifi, Romyar T. A cup product in the Galois cohomology of number fields. Duke Math. J. 120 (2003), no. 2, 269--310. doi:10.1215/S0012-7094-03-12023-2. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.dmj/1082138585.

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