Bayesian Analysis

Deep Learning: A Bayesian Perspective

Nicholas G. Polson and Vadim Sokolov

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Deep learning is a form of machine learning for nonlinear high dimensional pattern matching and prediction. By taking a Bayesian probabilistic perspective, we provide a number of insights into more efficient algorithms for optimisation and hyper-parameter tuning. Traditional high-dimensional data reduction techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), reduced rank regression (RRR), projection pursuit regression (PPR) are all shown to be shallow learners. Their deep learning counterparts exploit multiple deep layers of data reduction which provide predictive performance gains. Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) training optimisation and Dropout (DO) regularization provide estimation and variable selection. Bayesian regularization is central to finding weights and connections in networks to optimize the predictive bias-variance trade-off. To illustrate our methodology, we provide an analysis of international bookings on Airbnb. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research.

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Bayesian Anal. Volume 12, Number 4 (2017), 1275-1304.

First available in Project Euclid: 16 November 2017

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deep learning machine learning Artificial Intelligence LSTM models prediction Bayesian hierarchical models pattern matching TensorFlow

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Polson, Nicholas G.; Sokolov, Vadim. Deep Learning: A Bayesian Perspective. Bayesian Anal. 12 (2017), no. 4, 1275--1304. doi:10.1214/17-BA1082.

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