Abstract and Applied Analysis

Time- and Event-Driven Communication Process for Networked Control Systems: A Survey

Lei Zou, Zidong Wang, Hongli Dong, Yurong Liu, and Huijun Gao

Full-text: Access denied (no subscription detected)

We're sorry, but we are unable to provide you with the full text of this article because we are not able to identify you as a subscriber. If you have a personal subscription to this journal, then please login. If you are already logged in, then you may need to update your profile to register your subscription. Read more about accessing full-text

Abstract

In recent years, theoretical and practical research topics on networked control systems (NCSs) have gained an increasing interest from many researchers in a variety of disciplines owing to the extensive applications of NCSs in practice. In particular, an urgent need has arisen to understand the effects of communication processes on system performances. Sampling and protocol are two fundamental aspects of a communication process which have attracted a great deal of research attention. Most research focus has been on the analysis and control of dynamical behaviors under certain sampling procedures and communication protocols. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the analysis and synthesis issues of NCSs with different sampling procedures (time- and event-driven sampling) and protocols (static and dynamic protocols). First, these sampling procedures and protocols are introduced in detail according to their engineering backgrounds as well as dynamic natures. Then, the developments of the stabilization, control, and filtering problems are systematically reviewed and discussed in great detail. Finally, we conclude the paper by outlining future research challenges for analysis and synthesis problems of NCSs with different communication processes.

Article information

Source
Abstr. Appl. Anal., Volume 2014, Special Issue (2014), Article ID 261738, 10 pages.

Dates
First available in Project Euclid: 2 October 2014

Permanent link to this document
https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.aaa/1412278507

Digital Object Identifier
doi:10.1155/2014/261738

Zentralblatt MATH identifier
07022036

Citation

Zou, Lei; Wang, Zidong; Dong, Hongli; Liu, Yurong; Gao, Huijun. Time- and Event-Driven Communication Process for Networked Control Systems: A Survey. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2014, Special Issue (2014), Article ID 261738, 10 pages. doi:10.1155/2014/261738. https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.aaa/1412278507


Export citation

References

  • D. S. Bernstein and C. V. Hollot, “Robust stability for sampled-data control systems,” Systems & Control Letters, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 217–226, 1989.
  • T. Chen and B. A. Francis, “Input-output stability of sampled-data systems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 50–58, 1991.
  • Y. Gao and L. Wang, “Asynchronous consensus of continuous-time multi-agent systems with intermittent measurements,” International Journal of Control, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 552–562, 2010.
  • J. Wu, Y. Shi, and H. Li, “Consensus in multi-agent systems with non-uniform sampling,” in Proceedings of the American Control Conference (ACC '13), pp. 3260–3265, Washington, Wash, USA, June 2013.
  • M. C. F. Donkers and W. P. M. H. Heemels, “Output-based event-triggered control with guaranteed ${L}_{\infty }$-gain and improved and decentralized event-triggering,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1362–1376, 2012.
  • W. P. M. Heemels, M. C. F. Donkers, and A. R. Teel, “Periodic event-triggered control for linear systems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 847–861, 2013.
  • S. Hu and D. Yue, “Event-based ${H}_{\infty }$ filtering for networked system with communication delay,” Signal Processing, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 2029–2039, 2012.
  • C. Peng and T. C. Yang, “Event-triggered communication and ${H}_{\infty }$ control co-design for networked control systems,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1326–1332, 2013.
  • P. Tabuada, “Event-triggered real-time scheduling of stabilizing control tasks,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1680–1685, 2007.
  • D. Yue, E. Tian, and Q. Han, “A delay system method for designing event-triggered controllers of networked control systems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 475–481, 2013.
  • D. W. Kim, J. B. Park, Y. H. Joo, and S. H. Kim, “Multirate digital control for fuzzy systems: LMI-based design and stability analysis,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 506–515, 2006.
  • L. Zaccarian, A. R. Teel, and D. Nešić, “On finite gain ${L}_{p}$ stability of nonlinear sampled-data systems,” Systems and Control Letters, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 201–212, 2003.
  • M. Yu, L. Wang, and T. Chu, “Sampled-data stabilisation of networked control systems with nonlinearity,” IEE Proceedings: Control Theory and Applications, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 609–614, 2005.
  • D. Yue, Q.-L. Han, and C. Peng, “State feedback controller design of networked control systems,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 640–644, 2004.
  • W. A. Zhang and L. Yu, “Stabilization of sampled-data control systems with control inputs missing,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 447–452, 2010.
  • L. Hetel, J. Daafouz, J. P. Richard, and M. Jungers, “Delay-dependent sampled data control based on delay estimates,” Systems and Control Letters, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2011.
  • P. Zhang, S. X. Ding, G. Z. Wang, and D. H. Zhou, “Fault detection for multirate sampled-data systems with time delays,” International Journal of Control, vol. 75, no. 18, pp. 1457–1471, 2002.
  • T. Chen and L. Qiu, “${H}_{\infty }$ design of general multirate sampled-data control systems,” Automatica, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1139–1152, 1994.
  • D. Yue, Q.-L. Han, and J. Lam, “Network-based robust ${H}_{\infty }$ control of systems with uncertainty,” Automatica, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 999–1007, 2005.
  • H. Du, C. Qian, Y. He, and Y. Cheng, “Global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation of a class of upper-triangular systems with input delay,” IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1437–1446, 2013.
  • B. Wu and Z. Ding, “Asymptotic stabilisation of a class of nonlinear systems via sampled-data output feedback control,” International Journal of Control, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 1738–1746, 2009.
  • F. Sun, Z. Sun, and P.-Y. Woo, “Stable neural-network-based adaptive control for sampled-data nonlinear systems,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 956–968, 1998.
  • Y. Gao and L. Wang, “Sampled-data based consensus of continuous-time multi-agent systems with time-varying topology,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1226–1231, 2011.
  • S. Liu, T. Li, L. Xie, M. Fu, and J. Zhang, “Continuous-time and sampled-data-based average consensus with logarithmic quantizers,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 3329–3336, 2013.
  • Z. J. Tian, T. Z. Huang, J. L. Shao, and J.-P. Hu, “Leader-following consensus for multi-agent systems via sampled-data control,” IET Control Theory and Applications, vol. 5, no. 14, pp. 1658–1665, 2011.
  • D. Xie and J. Chen, “Consensus problem of data-sampled networked multi-agent systems with time-varying communication delays,” Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 753–763, 2013.
  • Y. S. Suh, “Stability and stabilization of nonuniform sampling systems,” Automatica, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 3222–3226, 2008.
  • H. Gao and T. Chen, “Stabilization of nonlinear systems under variable sampling: a fuzzy control approach,” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 972–983, 2007.
  • J. M. Olm, G. A. Ramos, and R. Costa-Castelló, “Stability analysis of digital repetitive control systems under time-varying sampling period,” IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2011.
  • J. Tsinias, “Sampled-data feedback practical semi-global controllability and stabilization for time-varying systems,” International Journal of Control, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2007.
  • E. Fridman, A. Seuret, and J. Richard, “Robust sampled-data stabilization of linear systems: an input delay approach,” Automatica, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1441–1446, 2004.
  • L. Mirkin, “Some remarks on the use of time-varying delay to model sample-and-hold circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1109–1112, 2007.
  • P. Naghshtabrizi, J. P. Hespanha, and A. R. Teel, “On the robust stability and stabilization of sampled-data systems: a hybrid system approach,” in Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC \textquotesingle 06), pp. 4873–4878, San Diego, Calif, USA, December 2006.
  • S. Hu, D. Yue, Z. Du, and J. Liu, “Reliable ${H}_{\infty }$ non-uniform sampling tracking control for continuous-time non-linear systems with stochastic actuator faults,” IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 120–129, 2012.
  • M. Liu, J. You, and X. Ma, “${H}_{\infty }$ filtering for sampled-data stochastic systems with limited capacity channel,” Signal Processing, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 1826–1837, 2011.
  • B. Shen, Z. Wang, J. Liang, and X. Liu, “Sampled-data \emphH$_{\infty }$ filtering for stochastic genetic regulatory networks,” International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 1759–1777, 2011.
  • V. Suplin, E. Fridman, and U. Shaked, “Sampled-data ${H}_{\infty }$ control and filtering: nonuniform uncertain sampling,” Automatica, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1072–1083, 2007.
  • Q. Gan and Y. Liang, “Synchronization of chaotic neural networks with time delay in the leakage term and parametric uncertainties based on sampled-data control,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 349, no. 6, pp. 1955–1971, 2012.
  • T. H. Lee, Z.-G. Wu, and J. H. Park, “Synchronization of a complex dynamical network with coupling time-varying delays via sampled-data control,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 219, no. 3, pp. 1354–1366, 2012.
  • N. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Hu, and Z. Nie, “Synchronization for general complex dynamical networks with sampled-data,” Neurocomputing, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 805–811, 2011.
  • S. J. S. Theesar, S. Banerjee, and P. Balasubramaniam, “Synchronization of chaotic systems under sampled-data control,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 1977–1987, 2012.
  • G. Wen, Z. Duan, W. Yu, and G. Chen, “Consensus of multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics and sampled-data information: a delayed-input approach,” International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 602–619, 2013.
  • H. Gao, J. Wu, and P. Shi, “Robust sampled-data H8 control with stochastic sampling,” Automatica, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1729–1736, 2009.
  • T. H. Lee, J. H. Park, S. M. Lee, and O. M. Kwon, “Robust synchronisation of chaotic systems with randomly occurring uncertainties via stochastic sampled-data control,” International Journal of Control, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 107–119, 2013.
  • Y. Li, Q. Zhang, J. Ren, and H. Lv, “Stabilization for networked control systems with random sampling periods and random delays by Markov chains,” in Proceedings of the 32nd Chinese Control Conference (CCC '13), pp. 6594–6599, Xi'an, China, July 2013.
  • S. Wen and Z. Zeng, “Robust sampled-data ${H}_{\infty }$ output tracking control for a class of nonlinear networked systems with stochastic sampling,” International Journal of Systems Science, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1626–1638, 2013.
  • J. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Gao, “H$\infty $ filtering with stochastic sampling,” Signal Processing, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1131–1145, 2010.
  • B. Shen, Z. Wang, and X. Liu, “A stochastic sampled-data approach to distributed ${H}_{\infty }$ filtering in sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 2237–2246, 2011.
  • B. Shen, Z. Wang, and X. Liu, “Sampled-data synchronization control of dynamical networks with stochastic sampling,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2644–2650, 2012.
  • T. H. Lee, J. H. Park, O. M. Kwon, and S. M. Lee, “Stochastic sampled-data control for state estimation of time-varying delayed neural networks,” Neural Networks, vol. 46, pp. 99–108, 2013.
  • A. Chandrasekar, R. Rakkiyappan, F. A. Rihan, and S. Lakshmanan, “Exponential synchronization of Markovian jumping neural networks with partly unknown transition probabilities via stochastic sampled-data control,” Neurocomputing, vol. 133, no. 10, pp. 385–398, 2014.
  • T. H. Lee, M. J. Park, O. M. Kwon, J. H. Park, and S. M. Lee, “State estimation for genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delay using stochastic sampled-data,” in Proceedings of the 9th Asian Control Conference, pp. 1–6, Istanbul, Turkey, 2013.
  • E. Garcia and P. J. Antsaklis, “Model-based event-triggered control with time-varying network delays,” in Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference (CDC-ECC '11), pp. 1650–1655, Orlando, Fla, USA, December 2011.
  • M. Miskowicz, “Send-on-delta concept: an event-based data reporting strategy,” Sensors, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 49–63, 2006.
  • V. H. Nguyen and Y. S. Suh, “Networked estimation for event-based sampling systems with packet dropouts,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 3078–3089, 2009.
  • H. Yu and P. J. Antsaklis, “Event-triggered output feedback control for networked control systems using passivity: achieving ${L}_{2}$ stability in the presence of communication delays and signal quantization,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2013.
  • C. de Persis, R. Sailer, and F. Wirth, “Parsimonious event-triggered distributed control: a Zeno free approach,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 2116–2124, 2013.
  • H. Li, “Event-triggered state estimation for a class of delayed recurrent neural networks with sampled-data information,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2012, Article ID 731453, 21 pages, 2012.
  • X. Ge, Q.-L. Han, F. Yang, and X.-M. Zhang, “Distributed event-triggered ${H}_{\infty }$ filtering over sensor networks with coupling delays,” in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial-Electronics-Society, pp. 5074–5079, Vienna, Austria, 2013.
  • L. Yan, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Yang, “Distributed state estimation in sensor networks with event-triggered communication,” Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 169–181, 2014.
  • H. Zhang, G. Feng, H. Yan, and Q. Chen, “Observer-based output feedback event-triggered control for consensus of multi-agent systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4885–4894, 2014.
  • Y. Fan, G. Feng, Y. Wang, and C. Song, “Distributed event-triggered control of multi-agent systems with combinational measurements,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 671–675, 2013.
  • M. Velasco, J. Fuertes, and P. Marti, “The self triggered task model for real-time control systems,” in Proceedings of the Work in Progress Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp. 67–70, 2003.
  • A. Anta and P. Tabuada, “To sample or not to sample: self-triggered control for nonlinear systems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2030–2042, 2010.
  • A. Anta and P. Tabuada, “Isochronous manifolds in self-triggered control,” in Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control held jointly with 2009 28th Chinese Control Conference (CDC/CCC \textquotesingle 09), pp. 3194–3199, Shanghai, China, December 2009.
  • M. Lemmon, T. Chantem, X. S. Hu, and Z. Matthew, “On self-triggered full-information ${H}_{\infty }$ controllers,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, pp. 371–384, Pisa, Italy, 2007.
  • X. Wang and M. D. Lemmon, “Self-triggering under state-independent disturbances,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1494–1500, 2010.
  • X. Wang and M. D. Lemmon, “Self-triggered feedback control systems with finite-gain ${L}_{2}$ stability,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 452–467, 2009.
  • W. Aggoune, B. Castillo, and S. Di Gennaro, “Self-triggered robust control of nonlinear stochastic systems,” in Proceedings of the 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC '12), pp. 7547–7552, Maui, Hawaii, USA, December 2012.
  • U. Tiberi and K. H. Johansson, “A simple self-triggered sampler for perturbed nonlinear systems,” Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems, vol. 10, pp. 126–140, 2013.
  • M. D. Di Benedetto, S. Di Gennaro, and A. D'Innocenzo, “Digital self-triggered robust control of nonlinear systems,” International Journal of Control, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1664–1672, 2013.
  • S. Lall and G. Dullerud, “An LMI solution to the robust synthesis problem for multi-rate sampled-data systems,” Automatica, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1909–1922, 2001.
  • G. C. Walsh, H. Ye, and L. G. Bushnell, “Stability analysis of networked control systems,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 438–446, 2002.
  • D. B. Dačić and D. Nešić, “Quadratic stabilization of linear networked control systems via simultaneous protocol and controller design,” Automatica, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1145–1155, 2007.
  • D. Antunes, J. P. Hespanha, and C. Silvestre, “Stochastic networked control systems with dynamic protocols,” in Proceedings of the American Control Conference (ACC \textquotesingle 11), pp. 1686–1691, San Francisco, Calif, USA, July 2011.
  • M. C. F. Donkers, W. P. M. H. Heemels, N. van de Wouw, and L. Hetel, “Stability analysis of networked control systems using a switched linear systems approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2101–2115, 2011.
  • W. P. M. H. Heemels, A. R. Teel, N. van de Wouw, and D. Nešić, “Networked control systems with communication constraints: tradeoffs between transmission intervals, delays and performance,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1781–1796, 2010.
  • R. Postoyan and D. Nesic, “A framework for the observer design for networked control systems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1309–1314, 2012.
  • H. Song, L. Yu, and W.-A. Zhang, “Stabilisation of networked control systems with communication constraints and multiple distributed transmission delays,” IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1307–1316, 2009.
  • G. C. Walsh, O. Beldiman, and L. G. Bushnell, “Asymptotic behavior of nonlinear networked control systems,” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1093–1097, 2001.
  • S. J. L. van Loon, M. C. F. Donkers, N. van de Wouw, and W. P. M. Heemels, “Stability analysis of networked and quantized linear control systems,” Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems, vol. 10, pp. 111–125, 2013.
  • K. Liu, E. Fridman, L. Hetel, and J.-P. Richard, “Sampled-data stabilization via round-robin scheduling: a direct Lyapunov-Krasovskii approach,” in Proceedings of the 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control, pp. 1459–1464, Milano, Italy, September 2011.
  • K. Liu, E. Fridman, and L. Hetel, “Stability and \emphL$_{2}$-gain analysis of networked control systems under round-robin scheduling: a time-delay approach,” Systems and Control Letters, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 666–675, 2012.
  • Y. Xu, H. Su, Y. J. Pan, Z. Wu, and W. Xu, “Stability analysis of networked control systems with round-robin scheduling and packet dropouts,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 350, no. 8, pp. 2013–2027, 2013.
  • N. W. Bauer, M. C. F. Donkers, N. van de Wouw, and W. P. M. H. Heemels, “Decentralized observer-based control via networked communication,” Automatica, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 2074–2086, 2013.
  • C. Zhou, M. Du, and Q. Chen, “Co-design of dynamic scheduling and ${H}_{\infty }$ control for networked control systems,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 218, no. 21, pp. 10767–10775, 2012.
  • D. Dačić and D. Nešić, “Observer design for wired linear networked control systems using matrix inequalities,” Automatica, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2840–2848, 2008.
  • M. Darouach and H. S. Ali, “Optimal unbiased functional filtering in the frequency domain,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 308–315, 2014.
  • Z. Ding, G. Wei, and X. Ding, “Speed identification and control for permanent magnet synchronous motor via sliding mode approach,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 161–167, 2014.
  • J. Liang, F. Sun, and X. Liu, “Finite-horizon ${H}_{\infty }$ filtering for time-varying delay systems with randomly varying nonlinearities and sensor saturations,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 108–118, 2014.
  • Q. Liu, Z. Wang, X. He, and D. H. Zhou, “A survey of event-based strategies on control and estimation,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2014.
  • B. Munyazikwiye, K. Robbersmyr, and H. Karimi, “A state-space approach to mathematical modeling and parameters identification of vehicle frontal crash,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 351–361, 2014.
  • L. Qin, X. He, and D. H. Zhou, “A survey of fault diagnosis for swarm systems,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 2014.
  • B. Shen, “A survey on the applications of the Krein-space theory in signal estimation,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 143–149, 2014.
  • J. Shen and J. Lam, “Decay rate constrained stability analysis for positive systems with discrete and distributed delays,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2014.
  • Q. Wang, H. Gao, F. Alsaadi, and T. Hayat, “An overview of consensus problems in constrained multi-agent coordination,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 275–284, 2014.
  • X. Wang, E. Yaz, and J. Long, “Robust and resilient state-dependent control of continuous-time nonlinear systems with general performance criteria,” Systems Science and Control Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2014.
  • N. Li, H.-Y. Sun, and Q.-L. Zhang, “The dynamics and bifurcation control of a singular biological economic model,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2012.
  • Q. Liang, Y.-Z. Wang, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Resource virtualization model using hybrid-graph representation and converging algorithm for cloud computing,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 597–606, 2013.
  • H.-P. Ma, X.-Y. Ruan, and Z.-X. Pan, “Handling multiple objectives with biogeography-based optimization,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2012.
  • M. S. Kumar and P. Philominathan, “Purcell's swimmer revisited,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 325–330, 2012.
  • X.-Y. Zhang and C.-L. Zhou, “From biological consciousness to machine consciousness: an approach to make smarter machines,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 498–505, 2013. \endinput