Kantilal Vardichand Mardia was born on April 3, 1935, in Sirohi,
Rajasthan, India. He earned his B.Sc. degree in mathematics from Ismail Yusuf
College–University of Bombay, in 1955, M.Sc. degrees in statistics and
in pure mathematics from University of Bombay in 1957 and University of Poona
in 1961, respectively, and Ph.D. degrees in statistics from the University of
Rajasthan and the University of Newcastle, respectively, in 1965 and 1967. For
significant contributions in statistics, he was awarded a D.Sc. degree from the
University of Newcastle in 1973. He started his career as an Assistant Lecturer
in the Institute of Science, Bombay and went to Newcastle as a Commonwealth
Scholar. After receiving the Ph.D. degree from Newcastle, he joined the
University of Hull as a lecturer in statistics in 1967, later becoming a reader
in statistics in 1971. He was appointed a Chair Professor in Applied Statistics
at the University of Leeds in 1973 and was the Head of the Department of
Statistics during 1976–1993, and again from 1997 to the present.
Professor Mardia has made pioneering contributions in many areas of statistics
including multivariate analysis, directional data analysis, shape analysis, and
spatial statistics. He has been credited for path-breaking contributions in
geostatistics, imaging, machine vision, tracking, and spatio-temporal modeling,
to name a few. He was instrumental in the founding of the Center of Medical
Imaging Research in Leeds and he holds the position of a joint director of this
internationally eminent center. He has pushed hard in creating exchange
programs between Leeds and other scholarly centers such as the University of
Granada, Spain, and the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. He has written
several scholarly books and edited conference proceedings and other special
volumes. But perhaps he is best known for his books: Multivariate Analysis
(coauthored with John Kent and John Bibby, 1979, Academic Press), Statistics of
Directional Data (second edition with Peter Jupp, 1999, Wiley) and Statistical
Shape Analysis (coauthored with Ian Dryden, 1998, Wiley). The conferences and
workshops he has been organizing in Leeds for a number of years have had
significant impacts on statistics and its interface with IT (information
technology). He is dynamic and his sense of humor is unmistakable. He is a
world traveler. Among other places, he has visited Princeton University, the
University of Michigan, Harvard University, the University of Granada, Penn
State and the University of Connecticut. He has given keynote addresses and
invited lectures in international conferences on numerous occasions. He has
been on the editorial board of statistical, as well as image related, journals
including the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,
Journal of Environmental and Ecological Statistics, Journal of Statistical
Planning and Inference and Journal of Applied Statistics. He has been elected a
Fellow of the American Statistical Association, a Fellow of the Institute of
Mathematical Statistics, and a Fellow of the American Dermatoglyphic
Association. He is also an elected member of the International Statistical
Institute and a Senior Member of IEEE. Professor Mardia retired on September
30, 2000 to take a full-time post as Senior Research Professor at
Leeds—a new position especially created for him.
ANDERSON, T. W. (1958). Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analy sis. Wiley, New York.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR91588
BESAG, J. E. (1986). On the statistical analysis of dirty pictures (with discussion). J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 48 259-302.
BINGHAM, C. and MARDIA, K. V. (1978). A small circle distribution on a sphere. Biometrika 65 379-389.
BOOKSTEIN, F. L. (1986). Size and shape spaces for landmark data in two dimensions (with discussion). Statist. Sci. 1 181- 242.
BOOKSTEIN, F. L. (1989). Partial warps: thin plate splines and the decomposition of deformations. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 11 567-585.
BOOKSTEIN, F. L. (1996). Landmark methods for forms with landmarks: morphometrics of group differences in outline shape. Medical Image Analy sis 1 225-243.
COCHRAN, W. G. and COX, G. M. (1950). Experimental Designs. Wiley, New York.
CRAMÉR, H. (1946). Mathematical Methods of Statistics. Princeton Univ. Press.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR16588
DRy DEN, I. L. and MARDIA, K. V. (1989). Shape distributions for landmark data. Adv. Appl. Probab. 21 742-755.
DRy DEN, I. L. and MARDIA, K. V. (1991). General shape distributions in a plane. Adv. Appl. Probab. 23 259-276.
DRy DEN, I. L. and MARDIA, K. V. (1998). Statistical Shape Analy sis. Wiley, New York.
FISHER, N. I., LEWIS, T. and EMBLETON, B. J. J. (1987). Statistical Analy sis of Spherical Data. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR899958
FISHER, R. A. (1953). Dispersion on a sphere. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 217 295-305.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR56866
GEMAN, S. and GEMAN, D. (1984). Stochastic relaxation, Gibbs distributions and the Bayesian restoration of images. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 6 721-741.
GOODALL, C. R. and MARDIA, K. V. (1994). Challenges in multivariate spatio-temporal modelling. In Proceedings XVII International Biometrika Conference 1 1-17. Hamilton, Canada.
GOODALL, C. R. and MARDIA, K. V. (1999). Projective shape analysis. J. Comput. Graph. Statist. 8 143-168.
GOWER, J. (1975). Generalized Procrustes analysis. Psy chometrika 40 33-51.
HARTLEY, H. O. (1950). The use of range in analysis of variance. Biometrika 37 271-280.
HARTLEY, H. O. and SMITH, W. B. (1968). A note on the correlation of ranges in correlated normal samples. Biometrika 55 595-597.
JOHNSON, N. L. and KOTZ, S. (1972). Continuous Multivariate Distributions. Wiley, New York.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR418337
JUPP, P. E. and MARDIA, K. V. (1979). Maximum likelihood estimators for the matrix von Mises-Fisher and Bingham distributions. Ann. Statist. 7 599-606.
KEMPTHORNE, O. (1952). The Design and Analy sis of Experiments. Wiley, New York.
KENDALL, D. G. (1989). A survey of the statistical theory of shape (with discussion). Statist. Sci. 4 87-120.
MARDIA, K. V. (1962). Multivariate Pareto distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33 1008-1015.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR27:871
MARDIA, K. V. (1967a). Some contributions to contingency-ty pe bivariate distributions. Biometrika 54 235-249.
MARDIA, K. V. (1967b). Correlation of the ranges of correlated samples. Biometrika 54 529-539.
MARDIA, K. V. (1967c). A nonparametric test for the bivariate two-sample location problem. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 29 320-342.
MARDIA, K. V. (1967d). Discussion of "A study of lowtemperature probabilities in the context of an industrial problem," by V. D. Barnett and T. Lewis. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. A 130 202.
MARDIA, K. V. (1968). Small sample power of a nonparametric test for the bivariate two-sample location problem in the normal case. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 30 83-92.
MARDIA, K. V. (1970a). Families of Bivariate Distributions. Griffin, London.
MARDIA, K. V. (1970b). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika 57 519-530.
MARDIA, K. V. (1971). The effect of nonnormality on some multivariate tests and robustness to nonnormality in the linear model. Biometrika 58 105-121.
MARDIA, K. V. (1972). Statistics of Directional Data. Academic Press, New York.
MARDIA, K. V. (1975). Statistics of directional data (with discussion). J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 37 349-393.
MARDIA, K. V. (1976). Do-it-yourself statistical analysis. Inaugural address. Leeds Review 19 79-98.
MARDIA, K. V. (1977). Mahalanobis distances and angles. In Multivariate Analy sis IV (P. R. Krishnaiah, ed.) 495-511. North-Holland, Amsterdam.
MARDIA, K. V. (1989). Discussion of "A survey of the statistical theory of shape," by D. G. Kendall. Statist. Sci. 4 108-111.
MARDIA, K. V. (1990). The Scientific Foundation of Jainism. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
MARDIA, K. V. (1991). On longevity and life-line. J. Appl. Statist. 17 443-448.
MARDIA, K. V., ed. (1992a). The Art of Statistical Science. A Tribute to G. S. Watson. Wiley, New York.
MARDIA, K. V. (1992b). Jain Thoughts and Pray ers. Yorkshire Jain Foundation, Leeds.
MARDIA, K. V. (2000). Omar Khay yam, René Descartes and solutions to algebraic equations (abstract). International Congress in Commemorating Hakim Omar Khay yam Ney shabouri, 900th Death Anniversary 9. Ney shabour, Iran.
MARDIA, K. V., BACZKOWSKI, A. J., FENG, X. and HAINS
WORTH, T. J. (1997). Statistical methods for automatic interpretation of digitally scanned fingerprints. In Special Issue: Pattern Recognition Letters (E. S. Gelsema and L. N. Kanal, eds.) 18 1197-1203. North-Holland, Amsterdam.
MARDIA, K. V. and CONSTABLE, P. D. L. (1992). On shape and size analysis of palmar interdigital areas. J. Appl. Statist. 19 285-292.
MARDIA, K. V. and DRy DEN, I. L. (1989). The Statistical analysis of shape data. Biometrika 76 271-281.
MARDIA, K. V. and EDWARDS, R. (1982). Weighted distributions and rotating caps. Biometrika 69 323-330.
MARDIA, K. V. and GADSEN, R. J. (1977). A circle of best-fit for spherical data and areas of vulcanism. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. C 26 238-245.
MARDIA, K. V. and GOODALL, C. R. (1993). Spatial temporal analysis of multivariate environmental monitoring data. In Multivariate Environmental Statistics (G. P. Patil and C. R. Rao, eds.) 347-386. North-Holland, Amsterdam.
MARDIA, K. V., GOODALL, C. R., REDFERN, E. J. and ALONSO,
F. J. (1998). The Kriged Kalman filter (with discussion). Test 7 217-285.
MARDIA, K. V., GOODALL, C. R. and WALDER, A. N. (1996). Distributions of projective invariants and model-based machine vision. Adv. Appl. Probab. 28 641-661.
MARDIA, K. V. and HAINSWORTH, T. J. (1988). A spatial thresholding method for image segmentation. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 10 919-927.
MARDIA, K. V. and HOLMES, D. (1980). A statistical analysis of megalithic data under elliptic pattern. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. A 143 293-302.
MARDIA, K. V. and JUPP, P. E. (1999). Statistics of Directional Data, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York.
MARDIA, K. V. and KENT, J. T. (1988). Spatial classification using fuzzy membership models. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 10 659-671.
MARDIA, K. V., KENT, J. T. and BIBBY, J. M. (1979). Multivariate Analy sis. Academic Press, New York.
MARDIA, K. V., KENT, J. T. and BRIDEN, J. C. (1983). Linear and planar structure in ordered multivariate data as applied to progressive demagnetization. Geophy s. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 75 593-621.
MARDIA, K. V. and MARSHALL, R. J. (1984). Maximum likelihood estimation of models for residual covariance in spatial regression. Biometrika 71 135-146.
MARDIA, K. V. and PURI, M. L. (1978). A spherical correlation coefficient robust against scale. Biometrika 65 391-395.
MARDIA, K. V., PURI, M. L. and EDWARDS, R. (1978). Analy sis of central place theory. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 47 93-110.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR617573
MARDIA, K. V., QIAN, W., SHAH, D. and DE SOUZA, K. (1997). Deformable template recognition of multiple occluded objects. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 19 1036- 1042.
MARDIA, K. V. and SPURR, B. D. (1973). Multisample tests for multimodal and axial circular populations. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 35 422-436.
MARDIA, K. V. and SUTTON, T. W. (1975). On the modes of a mixture of two von Mises distributions. Biometrika 62 699- 701.
MARDIA, K. V. and SUTTON, T. W. (1978). A model for cy lindrical variables with applications. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 40 229-233.
MARDIA, K. V., WALDER, A. N., BERRY, E., SHARPLES, D.,
MILNER, P. A. and DICKSON, R. A. (1999). Assessing spinal shape. J. Applied Statist. 26 735-745.
MARDIA, K. V. and WATKINS, A. J. (1989). On multimodality of the likelihood in the spatial linear model. Biometrika 76 289- 295.
MARDIA, K. V. and ZEMROCH, P. J. (1978). Tables of the F and Related Distributions with Algorithms. Academic Press, New
York. [Russian translation (1984). Nauka, Moscow.]
NEWRICK, P. G., AFFIE, E. and CORRALL, R. J. M. (1990). Relationship between longevity and life-line: a manual study of 100 patients. J. Roy. Soc. Medicine 83 499-501.
ORD, J. K. (1972). Families of Frequency Distributions. Griffin, London.
PEARSON, E. S. and HARTLEY, H. O. (1972). Biometrika Tables for Statisticians 2. Cambridge Univ. Press.
PITT, H. R. (1963). Integration, Measure and Probability. Oliver and Boy d, London.
PLACKETT, R. L. (1965). A class of bivariate distributions. J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 60 516-522.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR32:524
RAO, C. R. (1952). Advanced Statistical Methods in Biometric Research. Wiley, New York.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR50824
RIPLEY, B. (1981). Statistical Inference for Spatial Processes. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR971986
SWITZER, P. (1983). Some spatial statistics for the interpretation of satellite data (with discussion). Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 50 962-971.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR820742
WATSON, G. S. (1973). Review of K. Mardia's "Statistics of Directional Data." Technometrics 15 935-936.
WHEELER, S. and WATSON, G. S. (1964). A distribution-free twosample test on a circle. Biometrika 51 256-257.
Mathematical Reviews (MathSciNet): MR172390
WISHART, J. (1928). The generalized product moment distribution in samples from a normal multivariate population. Biometrika 20A 32-52.