### Some facts about functionals of location and scatter

R. M. Dudley

#### Abstract

Assumptions on a likelihood function, including a local Glivenko-Cantelli condition, imply the existence of M-estimators converging to an M-functional. Scatter matrix-valued estimators, defined on all empirical measures on $\RR^d$ for $d\geq 2$, and equivariant under all, including singular, affine transformations, are shown to be constants times the sample covariance matrix. So, if weakly continuous, they must be identically 0. Results are stated on existence and differentiability of location and scatter functionals, defined on a weakly dense, weakly open set of laws, via elliptically symmetric t distributions on $\RR^d$, following up on work of Kent, Tyler, and Dümbgen.

First Page:
Primary Subjects: 62G05, 62GH20
Secondary Subjects: 62G35
Keywords: equivariance; $t$ distributions
Full-text: Open access