### The Jackknife Estimate of Variance

B. Efron and C. Stein
Source: Ann. Statist. Volume 9, Number 3 (1981), 586-596.

#### Abstract

Tukey's jackknife estimate of variance for a statistic $S(X_1, X_2, \cdots, X_n)$ which is a symmetric function of i.i.d. random variables $X_i$, is investigated using an ANOVA-like decomposition of $S$. It is shown that the jackknife variance estimate tends always to be biased upwards, a theorem to this effect being proved for the natural jackknife estimate of $\operatorname{Var} S(X_1, X_2, \cdots, X_{n-1})$ based on $X_1, X_2, \cdots, X_n$.

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Primary Subjects: 62G05
Full-text: Open access